Defeated Rebs despised the "Ironclad Oath" of the 1865 Missouri Constitution. Every teacher, voter, officeholder, attorney, clergyman, or juror had to swear he had never, directly or indirectly, committed any of a long list of disloyal acts. The U.S. Supreme Court struck it down in 1867, but it remained a qualification for voting until 1870.

Brooks, Rebecca. “John Wilkes Booth,” Civil War Saga: Lost but not Forgotten Tales about the Civil War. Accessed September 23, 2012. http://civilwarsaga.com/john-wilkes-booth/

Civil War Roundtable of St. Louis. Bushwhacker Newsletter. Various.
http://civilwarstlouis.org/main/ Accessed September 24, 2012.

Cox, Joan. Alton Military Penitentiary in the Civil War: Smallpox and Burial on the Alton Harbor Islands, St Louis District Historic Properties Management Report No. 36. Alexandria, VA. November 1988.

“Death and the Civil War,” The American Experience. Public Broadcasting System. October18, 2012.

Dunphy, John. “New Light on Smallpox Island,” Springhouse Magazine On Line .
http://www.springhousemagazine.com/v7n4/smallpox.htmc. Accessed August 10, 2012.

“Facts about U.S. Colored Troops” U.S. Colored Troops. http://www.factasy.com/civil_war . Accessed September 10, 2012
Fort Ward Museum and Historic Site. “We are all Americans - Native Americans in the Civil War” .http://alexandriava.gov/historic/fortward/default.aspx?id=40164..Accessed October 1, 2012.

http://www.civilwarmo.org/ Various sections.

http://www.usgennet.org/ Various sections.

Fuller, Neathery B., Prof. and Michael J. Fuller, Prof. St. Louis Community College. “Ladies’ Union Aid Society.” http://users.stlcc.edu/mfuller/luas/. Accessed September 1, 2012.

Grassino, Sandie and Maj. Art Schuermann. Images of America: Jefferson Barracks. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. c2011.

Hurlbut, Thaddeus. “Birth of the Illinois Anti-Slavery Society,” Minutes for October 26-28, 1837. http://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/birth-illinois-anti-slavery- society-174958417. Accessed August 10, 2012.

The Lincoln Institute and the Lehrman Institute. “The Lawyers, Samuel H. Treat, Jr. (1811-1887),” Mr. Lincoln and Friends. Accessed August 10, 2012.

Meyers, David G. MD. (Speech) “Civil War Medicine.” The Jefferson Barracks 2012 Civil War Symposium. August 26, 2012.

Missouri Civil War Heritage Foundation, Various sections. http://www.civilwarmo.org/ c2011

Missouri Civil War Museum. Various. http://mcwm.org/history

Missouri Digital Heritage. Civil War. Missouri Archives. http://www.sos.mo.gov/mdh/ dividedLoyalties, Accessed September 23, 2012.

Missouri Digital Heritage. “Missouri’s Dred Scott Case, 1846-1857. ”http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp. Accessed October 1, 2012.

Missouri History Museum. “Special Civl War Issue,” Gateway Magazine. Volume 31. 2011.

“Nancy Jane Vaughn” http://www.doug.vaughn.org/trouble/nancyjanevaughn.html, Accessed September 21, 2012.

Neely, Jeremy. “Battle of Island Mound to be Dedicated October 27,” Heritage, Newsletter of the MIssouri Parks Assoiation. August 2012, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 2.

“The Romantic Revival,” National Jousting Association. c1998-2004.
http://www.nationaljousting.com/history/romantic.htm. Accessed September 28, 2012.

“Women at War,” Dixie Outfitters.com. Accessed September 1, 2012.

Zelinske, Greg. (Speech) “Locating Civil War Grave Sites.” The Jefferson Barracks 2012 Civil War Symposium. August 26, 2012.



Donna Ross
Illustrated by Erin Weaver
copyright 2013 Fedora Amis LLC

I owe deepest gratitude to WIlliam C. Winter’s book The Civil War in St. Louis: A Guided Tour.  (Missouri Historical Society Press, St. Louis c1994). I found inspiration and insight on every page. For deeper exploration, I hope you’ll   read it. Another invaluable resource is Civil War St. Louis by Louis S. Gerteis (University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. c2001.)

I hope that I have ferreted out errors, though any which exist are mine and mine alone.  Often reports contradict one another. In those cases I’ve used the most credible and attempted to verify each item with at least one additional source.

My goal was not to exhaust all possible Civil War venues in the area, merely to provide a taste of life in those turbulent years. I’ve omitted many rousing and heartrending tales because they fell outside my arbitrary central, north and south boundaries. You may find a few of these and much more to add to your St. Louis Civil War experience by clicking “More St. Louis Stories.” To put it briefly, I hope to engage your imagination and to pique your interest in the most important Union stronghold in the west and the anchor for the men and materiel that led to final victory--St. Louis.

Statues and Memorials

St. Louis-Where the West Began

What Caused the Civil War?
The Men Who Started the Shooting War
Lincoln and Douglas
Abraham Lincoln
Grant and Sherman
Bellefontaine Cemetery
More St. Louis Stories
On-Line Resources
Victorian Verity
Donna Ross's Speaking Site

Court House, April 9, 1865
General R. E. Lee, Commanding CSA:

In accordance with the substance of my letters to you of the 8th inst., I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia on the following terms, to wit:

Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officers as you may designate.
The officers to give their individual paroles not to take arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands.

The arms, artillery and public property to be packed and stacked and turned over to the officers appointed by me to receive them.

This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their parole and the laws in force where they reside.

Very respectfully,
U.S. Grant,
Lieutenant-General, U.S. Army